Build your own Folding Farm

Whether or not you know Linux!

By: Mark J. Foster

Introduction

You know what it's like: you stare at your Folding@Home scores, thinking how it feels like everything is moving in slow motion.  Whether your motives are to compete with other participants, to help out your team, to contribute more to this great cause, or some mixture, you'll start to think about adding more horsepower. As you go through the process of installing and managing the folding client program on multiple PCs, you'll quickly come to two key realizations:
  1. Adding full-blown PCs is expensive!
  2. Managing multiple PCs can take a lot of time
Fortunately, there is a great alternative - building up a "Folding Farm"!  For the sake of this discussion, we'll define a folding farm as a cluster of stripped-down PCs that can primarily be managed as a single system.  While some folks call a group of regular PCs a folding farm, and call a group of diskless PCs a "Monster Farm", we'll concentrate exclusively on diskless systems here, so the term folding farm will do just fine.

The essence of the diskless approach is that you'll build just one Linux server that will provide all the support necessary for many diskless folding "clients".  While this approach can take a bit of time to set up initially, it very quickly becomes far easier to manage than a group of PCs.  Anyone who has more than three-four systems dedicated to the Folding@Home project should seriously consider building their own folding farm.

The key problem with the folding farm approach is that it is most efficient to base such systems on the free Linux operating system, yet most folks aren't comfortable with Linux.  The goal of this series is to define a standard folding farm configuration, then to walk you through the process of creating your own.  While this does limit flexibility to some degree, it should make it possible for just about anyone who has the financial resources to build a folding farm, even if they are new to Linux!


View from top of farm, looking down at 10 motherboards, and a Shuttle SS51G server.



The Philosophy

The variety of possible ways to build a folding farm is essentially infinite: there are many different fundamental approaches.  With roughly a dozen different popular Linux distributions, it's pretty clear that one size doesn't fit all!  Having said that, the only way to make an article like this possible is to narrow the scope down to a specific approach, and in this case, the goal is to provide the path of least effort, while still delivering a powerful, flexible system.  As a case in point, we'll be installing the full RedHat Linux 8.0 distribution on the folding farm server.  Some folks may not like this, preferring a more customized, stripped-down approach.  That's fine, too, but the lean-and-mean approach definitely requires more work.  Since the goal of this series is to simplify the installation process, we'll lean towards decisions that minimize the amount of effort you'll have to make to get your own folding farm up and running.

About Recommendations

To be sure, you can build a folding farm out of just about anything, starting with something as modest as a 200 MHz Pentium server booting from a Zip drive, all the way up to a multiprocessor Xeon megaserver booting from a multi-terabyte RAID array.  However, this series will concentrate on a specific range of configurations towards the upper-middle of the performance spectrum, for that's where you'll get the best performance for your hard-earned dollars.  Along the way, we'll make recommendations for potential components that you might want to buy, if you are picking up new gear to make your own folding farm.  In fact, these recommendations will get pretty specific in a couple of cases: such as specifying the motherboard recommended for the client systems.  While you are free to use any components that you would like, the closest your components are to the recommendations, the less effort you'll have to spend engineering your own solutions.

Folding Farm Architecture

The most important decision you'll make after deciding which hardware to use is deciding upon the architecture - in other words, an overall plan for how things are interconnected.  Since the architecture chosen has a huge impact on how you'll configure the system, this article necessarily focuses on a specific configuration, including the following:


Power and Heat

Before getting into the details of building up a farm, it's very important to think about the two toughest issues you'll face (other than cost!): heat and power consumption.  When starting off, you'll naturally want to cram as many motherboards into the available space as you can, but be careful!  As with most computer systems today, the primary factor limiting compute density is thermal dissipation; that is, getting rid of the incredible amount of heat that multiple CPUs can generate.  In general, two factors will help to solve this: more airspace between units, and more airflow into and out of the farm, both of which naturally conflict with the goal of packing everything as tightly as possible.

A related concern is raising the ambient temperature.  If the first goal is restated as preventing the folding farm units from overheating, the second goal is to keep the room from overheating!  With a large farm, you may actually need to plan for external ducting to exhaust the heat.  Even with small farms, you may find that just a few CPUs will noticeably warm up a room, depending on airflow.

The third important factor to consider is power consumption.  Make sure that the area you plan on building the farm in has sufficient A.C. power to be able to run all your equipment.  Having popped circuit breakers repeatedly at home and at work, I've learned how important this issue can be.  Depending on the specific client hardware you'll be running, plan on 150W to 200W per client.

With all these factors in mind, you may well find that the best way to construct your folding farm is to distribute the clients in different locations, thereby helping to spread out the power consumption and heat.

Physical Layout of Your Folding Farm

While it is necessary to focus on a specific system architecture, when it comes to the physical layout of your own folding farm, the sky's the limit.  Here's where you can really let your creativity flow!  Some of the many approaches that folks have used to build their farms include:

For even more alternatives, please check out the outstanding Monsters and Monster Farms webpage.  Many thanks to the webmaster of that site for such a great collection of ideas!

Selecting the Client Hardware

Determining which hardware you'll use for the folding clients is a lot of fun, and is actually more involved than it may appear at first glance.  Most folks' goal will be to maximize the performance per dollar of investment, while satisfying their personal subjective criteria.  What kinds of criteria might apply?  Absolute minimum cost may well be your highest priority.  However, you may also care about noise, for instance.  If so, then you may want the best bang-per-buck given quiet components.  Alternately, space may be a primary consideration for you, in which case you'll want to use smaller motherboards and power supplies.

Let's say that you're concerned about noise, and you want your folding farm to be as silent as possible.  To do that, you'll need to pick quiet power supplies and CPU coolers.  That's the way I see things, so I use ultra-quiet 350W power supplies from Robanton, along with the Arctic Cooling Super Silent Pro TC CPU cooler.

Once the motherboard, power supply and CPU cooler have been chosen, the next component to select is memory.  While there is insufficient benchmark information available to provide detailed guidance, standard 128MB PC2100 CL2.5 DDR DIMMs appear to be a fine choice for memory in a folding farm application.

To pick the CPU, add up the costs of the other components that you've selected.  In this case, let's imagine that the cost of the motherboard is $53, the power supply is $35, the CPU cooler is $16, and the memory is $21.  That means that the total costs other than CPU work out to $125.

But wait a minute!  Are there any other costs associated directly with each client?  Consider also the mounting methods you'll use.  Perhaps you'll be spending $5/client on a shelf and/or mounting hardware.  In addition, what about the Ethernet switch and cabling?  Let's say that that's another $10/client.  If you are buying a new server for the farm, you'll want to include a chunk of those costs, too.  If your server was $500 and you're building 16 clients, then that's another ~$30/client.

Add up all of these "fixed" costs to determine how much you are really paying for each client system - in this case, $170.  Given this, which CPU will provide the best performance/$?  Easy enough!  For each available CPU, divide the CPU speed by the sum of the fixed costs plus the CPU cost.  Here's an example:


PROCESSOR
CPU PRICE
FIXED COSTS
TOTAL COST
"MHz"/$
Athlon XP 3000+
$589
$170
$759
3.95
Athlon XP 2800+
$389
$170
$559
5.01
Athlon XP 2600+ $232
$170
$402
6.47
Athlon XP 2500+
$179
$170
$349
7.16
Athlon XP 2400+
$135
$170
$305
7.87
Athlon XP 2200+
$102
$170
$272
8.09
Athlon XP 2100+
$78
$170
$248
8.47
Athlon XP 2000+
$69
$170
$239
8.37
Athlon XP 1900+
$63
$170
$233
8.15
Athlon XP 1800+
$55
$170
$225
8.00
Athlon XP 1700+
$48
$170
$218
7.80

As this table shows, the Athlon XP 2100+ CPU provides the highest performance per dollar invested, given the other components that were selected for the example.  If you were to repeat the same exercise with less expensive components, then a slower CPU would deliver the best bang per buck.  Regardless of what your priorities are, it's worth taking the time to go through this exercise yourself, since prices change daily!

Bill Of Materials

Before we get started, you'll want to round up the various components that you'll need, if for no other reason so you can start creating a budget for the project.  Here's a list of the components you'll need to build up a folding farm:
In addition, you'll need the following accessories, at least temporarily:

Credits

[All this will get reorganized later, but it's important that we give credit where credit is due right at the start!  Many thanks go to Jason Rabel, author of the excellent article FAH Diskless Farm.  In many ways, this article primarily restates what Jason's already said.  Thanks, Jason!]